Data summaries use descriptive (summary) statistics to present collected research data in a logical, meaningful, and efficient way. In most cases, data summaries do not make inferences about the data and its ability to prove or disprove a research question.
Data summaries usually present the dataset’s average (mean, median, and/or mode); standard deviation from mean or interquartile range; how the data is distributed across the range of data (for example is it skewed to one side of the range); and statistical dependence (if more than one variable was captured in the dataset). Data summaries may be presented in numerical text and/or in tables, graphs, or diagrams.
Descriptive Statistics: Reporting the Answers to the 5 Basic Questions of Who, What, Why, When, Where, and a Sixth, So What? [2017 published article]
Types of Variables, Descriptive Statistics, and Sample Size [2019 published article]