Cell therapy refers to the transfer of cells into a patient with the goal of improving a disease. The cells may be from the patient (autologous) or from a donor (allogenic). Types of cell therapies include blood transfusions, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT; also called bone marrow transplant), and gene modified cell therapy.
Gene-modified cell therapy involves removing cells from a patient’s body, in order to introduce a new gene or correct a faulty gene in vitro. The modified cells are then put back into the body. An example of this approach is chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy. In CAR-T cell therapy, a gene is introduced to the patient’s T cells, which are a kind of immune cell, in vitro using a vector. The additional gene changes the T-cells in a way that enables them to recognize and attack specific cancer cells.
American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy Gene Therapy 101: Different Approaches
American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy: Gene and Cell Therapy FAQ’s
NCATS Toolkit for Patient-Focused Therapy Development: Genetic Therapeutics
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Dictionary of Cancer Terms